What is unemployment? || Top 10 reason to Stop

What is unemployment? || Top 10 reason to Stop

By the way, in today’s time Berojgari is a very big problem and many countries are fighting this problem. Be it a developed country or a developing country. Everyone is fighting berojgari in their country. Every country wants that all its citizens should get employment and every citizen of any country, he also needs Rojgaar.

What is unemployment? In this article, an attempt has been made to know this topic only. Unemployment is the biggest challenge for the economy of any country. If that country is developing. So this problem becomes even bigger. Unemployment is the loss of human resource for any country.

So let’s see what and how Berojgari is found in developing and developed countries.

What is unemployment?

First of all we should know that every country has its own nature to decide Berojgari, but the types of Berojgari are the same.

By unemployment it means that “when a person wants to do some work but he does not get the work according to his experience, then he is called Berojgar. In India, it has been included only for the people of 15 to 65 years of age.

also read:

How Many Types of Unemployment

There are two types of unemployment in a developed country

  1. Cyclical unemployment
  2. There is retaliatory unemployment.

In the same developing country there are two types of unemployment

  1. Rural
  2. Urban.

There are two types of unemployment in rural also, a) disguised unemployment b) seasonal unemployment. Similarly in urban also there are two types of unemployment, a) industrial unemployment b) educated unemployment. So all types of unemployment are like this.

What is cyclical unemployment?

This type of unemployment depends on the economy. When there is good growth in the economy, new employment opportunities are created and when there is a recession, there is a decrease in both production and employment, then this is called cyclical unemployment.

What is retaliatory unemployment?

When a person leaves one job that he was already doing and moves to another job, then it is called retaliatory unemployment when he becomes unemployed between the interval between leaving the old job and taking up the new job.

What is structural unemployment?

It is called Structural Unemployment in English. This type of Berojgari comes when there is a change in the long term conditions in the market. For example, in India the production of radio has stopped and the production of TV has increased.

Due to this new development, the masons producing the radio will become unemployed and new jobs will be created due to the production of TV. It is also called technical unemployment.

What is the disguised Berojgari?

It is also called Disguised Unemployment. In this, the productivity of some people becomes zero, so even letting them out does not reduce production, but those who have been fired become unemployed.

What is Mausmi Berojgari?

Massive unemployment occurs when people are unemployed for some time in the year. Such people work for a few days in a year and for the rest of the day they are unemployed. such as tourism and agriculture.

What is voluntary unemployment?

Such people who do not do any work due to lack of work or they do not get the amount according to their mind, then those people who are unemployed in that situation, it is called Voluntary Unemployment.

So this was Berojgari Ke Prakar, by this you must have come to know what are the types of unemployment and what they mean. Even then some questions arise in the mind of some people, then the answers to those questions are also given below, definitely see them.

What are the types of unemployment, in numbers?

After reading the complete information, you must have come to know that there are 6 types of unemployment which are as follows.

  • cyclical unemployment
  • retaliatory unemployment
  • structural unemployment
  • disguised unemployment
  • seasonal unemployment
  • voluntary unemployment

What type of unemployment is there in India?

From this information we can understand that disguised and structural unemployment is found in India.

what is unemployment

A person is then considered unemployed. When he is ready or willing to work at the prevailing wage rate, but he does not get work. This thing can also be said in this way, if a person willing and able to work at the prevailing wage rate in a society does not get any work, then such a person is called unemployed and such a problem is called unemployment problem.

The economic and social problem of a person deprived of work due to lack of opportunities while wanting to work is called unemployment.

Types of Unemployment(Berojgari ke prakar) nemployment is divided into two parts.

  • rural unemployment
  • urban unemployment

There are mainly two types of unemployment in urban areas.

industrial unemployment

Industrial unemployment includes those people who have the ability to work technically and non-technically but are unemployed. The problem of unemployment in the industrial sector increases with the increase of population. In industrial unemployment, the rate of economic growth is slow while the rate of population growth remains fast. This means that the policy being made by the government for industrial development is proving to be weak. Due to which suitable employment opportunities are not being created.

educated unemployment

Unable to get employment by the educated people of the society is called educated unemployment. There are many reasons for the problem of unemployment among the educated class in a country like India.

The education system in India is not designed to be about employment, but the acquisition of degrees.
There is no synergy between education and employment. The employment prospects are very less as compared to the rate of educated people.

rural unemployment

There are two main types of unemployment in rural areas.

  • Disguised Unemployment
  • Seasonal Unemployment
  • Disguised Unemployment

The problem of unemployment of this type is very much found in the agricultural sectors. In invisible unemployment, more workers are engaged in work than are required to do a job.

If the additional workers engaged in the work are excluded from the production process, then there is no effect on the total output.

Seasonal Unemployment

A person gets employment for a season or a few months of a year, and does not get work for the rest of the month or season, this is called ‘seasonal unemployment’. Seasonal unemployment is found to be high in rural areas of India. About 48% of India’s population is involved in agriculture and allied activities. Agriculture is a seasonal occupation. That is, decisions are sown according to the agricultural season. And in the free season, farmers working in agriculture often remain unemployed.

  • Other Classifications of Unemployment
  • open unemployment

If a person is not involved in any production work then his condition is called open unemployment. Just like a worker wants to work, he also has the necessary qualifications to do the work. But he does not get work, he is useless for the whole time.

structural unemployment

In comparison to the increasing demand for employment in the society, the widespread unemployment found due to the narrow and archaic structure of the production sector, which keeps on increasing. called structural unemployment. This problem is found in developing countries like India.

causes of structural unemployment

Due to the change in technology and production techniques, the old technical artisans are no longer needed, they become unemployed.
Due to lack of demand some industries are closed and workers are thrown out of the industries.

Frictional unemployment

In the event of equilibrium in the demand and supply forces in the economy, the process of institutional adjustment begins, and in this transition period some people become victims of short-term unemployment. whose problem is called frictional unemployment. Seasonal unemployment is a special form of frictional unemployment.

  • depending on the period
  • complete unemployment

If a person is available for less than 1 hour of work per day on an average, then that situation is called complete unemployment.

semi unemployment

If a person is available on an average work of more than 1 hour per day but less than 4 hours, then his condition is called semi-unemployment.

  • based on power
  • voluntary unemployment

Voluntary unemployment is the condition of an unemployed person due to lack of willingness to do that work even when employment opportunities are available at the present level of wages.

involuntary unemployment

Involuntary unemployment is the condition of an unemployed person due to lack of employment opportunities in spite of willingness to work at the present level of wages.

  • because of unemployment
  • rapid increase in population
  • lack of education system
  • low economic prosperity rate
  • low savings and investment
  • End of small and cottage industries
  • Lack of agro-based industries
  • Lack of skill and technical knowledge among citizens
  • inadequate employment schemes
  • destruction of traditional industries
  • lack of self-employment
  • agriculture is related to the seasonal system
  • consequences of unemployment
  • Unemployment is a major obstacle in the economic and social development of any country.

Meaning of unemployment

Unemployment is defined as existing when a person has the capacity to work and is unable to find work for a living or it can also be understood in such a way that a person who is physically and mentally capable Wants to work but is unable to find work or employment. That person is ready to work at the current wage rate but he is not able to get work. So it is called unemployment.

Unemployment is an economic and social problem of the country. Under which any group of working population wants to work but is unable to get work.

What is called unemployment?

When the manpower working in the country is more and they are ready to work but they are not able to get work at the prevailing wage rate, then this condition is called unemployment.

Definition of unemployment

What is meant by unemployment?

According to Raffin and Gregory, “an unemployed person is a person who

(1) Not working at present.
(2) One who is actively looking for work.
(3) who is available to work at the present wage.”

There are only two reasons for the rise of unemployment in the entire world economy.

Unemployment resulting from a decrease in demand for a commodity.
Unemployment arising due to lack of capital.

Technical meaning of unemployment

To understand unemployment, we have to first read about labor force and workforce –

Technical Meaning – In the age pyramid of any country, there are three such classes 0-15 years, 15-65 and 65+, this class is called the labor force of that country.

Labor force = willing to work + capable of doing work.

The number of people who have got work in this labor force is the work force.

The labor force of a country which could not convert into work force is called unemployed.

unemployment = labor force – workforce
full employment = labor force = workforce

When the entire labor force of a country is converted into work force, it is called full employment.

Labor force – Under the labor force, people between the age group of 15 years to 65 years come in our country. In this, people in the age group of 15-65 years who are either engaged in employment or in search of employment.

employment + unemployed

Work Force – Those people who get employment or work out of the labor force are called work force of the nation.

Unemployment formula – Berojgari Nikalne Ka Tarika
Number of unemployment = Labor force – Number of people employed

The following formula is used to calculate the unemployment rate –

Unemployment rate = Number of unemployed / labor force X 100

Types of unemployment

Types of unemployment

what is voluntary unemployment

When a person does not want to work at the prevailing wage, that is, when a person is getting work at the current wage rate but he does not want to work at his will, then it is called voluntary or voluntary unemployment.

what is involuntary unemployment

This is the worst form of unemployment. If the worker in the economy is ready to work at the prevailing wage but still he does not get any work at the prevailing wage, then such people are called involuntary unemployed. In this, the workers have to live without working, they do not get even a little work. It is also called ‘open unemployment’. By unemployment we mean involuntary unemployment.

what is structural unemployment

The unemployment arising due to structural changes in industrial areas is called structural unemployment. When the financial, physical, and human infrastructure in a nation is weak, then there is a lack of jobs, then that unemployment is called structural unemployment. This unemployment lasts for a long time. Structural unemployment is found in developing countries. Similar unemployment is found more in India.

What is frictional unemployment?

When a person leaves one job and goes to another job of his own free will, then by this time that person is unemployed i.e. that person will remain unemployed for few days, few weeks, few months, then this type of unemployment is called frictional unemployment.

Unemployment arising out of changes in market conditions is called frictional unemployment. It includes demand and supply. This type of unemployment is found mostly in developed countries.
For example, after the Second World War, industries were closed due to a decrease in the demand for wartime industries, leaving all the workers engaged in them unemployed.

What is hidden unemployment?

When more workers are engaged in doing a work than necessary, then the marginal productivity of these workers becomes zero, even if these workers are fired, there is no effect on the output of the work. That is, less people are needed but more people are working. There is hidden unemployment of such people who are doing unnecessary work in excess of the requirement. It was first conceptually mentioned by John Robinson, mainly in the Indian agricultural sector, disguised unemployment is prevalent.

financial results

  • Inadequate use of human resources
  • decrease in production of goods and services
  • Decline in the rate of savings and capital formation
  • low output problem
  • social consequences


Now I think you have got enough information about unemployment. If you have any query related to unemployment then definitely comment below.

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